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Sunday, February 24, 2013


Pambar originates from the Benmore Tea Estate of Devikulam in Idukki district. It is at Anaimudi Hills the highest peak of Kerala an altitude of + 1950 m above M.S.L of the western Ghats. It flows 29 km eastward through Kerala state and enter in to Tamilnadu state.
 It is also known as The Thalayar. Pambar is also a tributary of the Cauvery river.The total drainage area of the Pambar basin within Kerala State is 384 sq. km. The main tributaries of this river is Iravikulam, Mylady, Theerthamala, Chengalar, and Thenar (Vattavada river). Pambar joins with Thenar in Tamil Nadu in Kovikadvu. The bed of the river falls steeply and it crosses over to the Tamil Nadu to form the Amaravathy a major tributary of the Cauvery River.

Thuvanam Water Falls is in Pambar.The spectacular waterfall is located in the interiors of the Chinnar Wildlife sanctuary.It is adjoined by Iravikulam National park, Anaimali and Kodaikkanal Wildlife sanctuaries.The Wildlife Department is allowing tourists to visit the waterfalls. Munnar is a hill station in Kannan Devan Hills in Devikulam Taluk. Marayur is 42 kilometers north of Munnar is the only place in Kerala that has natural sandalwood forests. Marayur claims to be a part of a Stone Age civilization that is as old as 10,000 B.C. Marayur is the only place in Kerala that has natural sandalwood forests.The Kumbakarai waterfalls are also on the Pambar at Kumbakarai village. 

 Sholas are evergreen tropical and subtropical moist broad leaf forest found in valleys in the higher mountain regions of South India. The Pambar Sholas in all of the Palni hills is now reduced to less than 3 km in circumference contains several rare and endemic plant species including some  of the extinct  species in coming years. Neelakurinji botanical name Strobilanthes kunthiana is a shrub grow in The Nilgiri Hills, which literally means the blue mountains, got their name from the purplish blue flowers of Neelakurinji that blossoms gregariously only once in 12 years. The Paliyan tribal people apparently used it to calculate their age. Kurinjimala Sanctuary is about 32 sq. km core habitat of the endangered Neelakurinji plant is protected in Kurinjimala Sanctuary in Kottakamboor and Vattavada villages in Devikulam Taluk.


 Bhavani River, is a tributary of the River Cauvery originating from the South West Corner of the Nilgiri hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu states.
 It enters kerala through Palakkad district between two high forested ridges about 20 kms up to Mukkali, after the abrupt turn in the northeast direction through a totally degraded and denuded catchment about 25 km where the whole population of the Attappady valley lies upto Koodappatti. 

 Attappady Reserve Forest is a protected well known prominent forest  area in Palakkad district of Kerala. Attappady has many tribal groups include Irular, Mudugar and Kurumbar has own rich culture and tradition that go beyond the Vedic times.
  Silent Valley is considered one of the most ecologically diverse areas on the planet is 40 km away from Mannarkkad, Palakkad district.It has more than 1000 species of flowering plants which include about 110 species of orchids, more than 34 species of mammals, about 200 species of butterflies, 400 species of moths, 128 species of beetles of which 10 are new to science, about 150 species of birds including almost all the 16 endemic birds of southern India.12 major stream join Bhavani river.The Varagar is the largest tributaries.

The Siruvani river a perennial stream of Palakkad district and the Kodungarapallam river, flowing from the south and southeast respectively join the Bhavani at Koodappatti on the Kerala-Tamil Nadu border.The Bhavani joins the Kaveri at the Northern part of Erode City near Bhavani. The Sri Sangameswarar Temple at the confluence of the two rivers is an important pilgrimage spot. Kanjirapuzha dam is situated 13 Km. away from Mannarkkad and Siruvani dam  46 km north of Mannarkkad  Palakkad.The reservoir at Siruvani was built for Tamil Nadu by the Kerala Government to meet the drinking water requirements of Coimbatore..This river again went back to Tamil Nadu through Kalkandiyoor. Upper Bhavani Reservoir, Pilloor Dam is in Tamil Nadu state.

Saturday, February 23, 2013


Kabani River originates from Pakramthalam hills in Wayanad district and flows 58 km towards eastern side to the Karnataka state. 
It is the only one river which flows out of the state to Karnataka state. Makkiyad river, Periya river,Panamaram river and kalindi river joins with kabani on its way.Panamaram river joins Kabini near Payyampally at Koodal Kadavu.
The famous tourist spot 'Kuruva islands' situated on the banks of the Kabani River. It is a 950-acre (3.8 km2) protected river delta on the Kabini River in the Wayanad district.Which is an ideal picnic spot and potential eco tourism destination.This island of dense and evergreen forest is uninhabited and hence a home to rare kinds of flora and fauna: uncommon species of birds, orchids and herbs.The forest reserve is spread over 55 acres of forestland and water bodies situated on the banks of river Kabini. It is considered to be one of the best wildlife spotting areas in Karnataka, famous for its spectacular wildlife and bird life. Papanasini River  begins as a spring in the Brahmagiri Hills and joins with kalindi river. It is a holy mountain stream  around 1 km northwest of Thirunelli Temple and 32 km away from Manathavady. Papanasini stream can  wash away all sins committed in a lifetime.The Banasura Sagar Dam  in Wayanad District  is the largest earthen dam in India and the second largest in Asia is in the Karamanathodu tributary of the Kabini River. This Dam is at the foot of the Banasura Hill near Kalpetta in Wayanad district. Kabani river flows almost 12 km through the boarder of two states and enter in to Karnataka state. Beechinahalli reservoir is the main source of water for Karnataka state is received from the Kabini river. Some of the interesting tourist spot in Wayanad district are Edakkal Caves 25 km away from Kalpetta in the Wayanad district, Chembra the highest peak  2,100 metres above sea level, Meenmutty Falls is located 29 km from Kalpetta, Soochipara Falls, The Irupu Falls etc..


Kavvayi river originate from Cheemeni hills and flows 31 km westward to Kavvayi lake at an altitude of +385 m and flows past Alpadampa, Vadasseri, Udamanthai before emptying in to the Kavvayi backwaters.
Three streams coming from the north join the main stream. The river enters the backwaters at Udamanthai. It has a  catchment area of 143 sq. km.
Kavvayi or  the Kavil Pattanam is a small island, 4 km west from Payyanur municipality in the Kannur district.This village is one of the most attractive tourist area in kerala by its natural beauty.It is surrounded by river and tourist called it as Hawaii  During the past the city center of Kavil Pattanam was the main town because of the waterways through Kavvayi River and its big seaport.The island is connected to Payyanur by a small bridge on the Kavvayi River.   MBM and Kochen Island are the two very small islands other than  Kavvayi Island in between Kavvayi lake.You can walk from one end of the island to the other end in just 15 minutes which leads to the placid stretch of Kavvayi backwaters. The surrounded  small islands which are accessible only by ferry or boats. The population is mainly Muslim.Kavvayi is surrounded by small islands called Kadappuram, which directly face the Arabian sea. Access to these small islands is only by small boats or traditional thonis.China and other countries used to visit this port and were anchored in the nearby river Changoorichal in the history and later this port retained its position during the rule of British East India Company. They established Magistrate court and registrar office in Kavvayi only.The vitalizing breeze from  the Arabian sea, the wonderful beauty of this village and the seaport have attracted by the tourists to spend their holidays here. Kotta Kunnu  (Fort Hill) is the main attractive place but now the hills have been accomidated by the local people. Kokkanisseri has become the city center. Coconut is the main income, rest of the people doing business and traveling abroad, especially in gulf countries.


Manjeswaram river is the shortest river in kerala and it has only 16 km length . The river originates from Balappooni hills and falls in to the Uppala Lake in Kasargode district.
 Kasargode is a land of dozen rivers, the district is blessed with a large number of estuaries. Estuaries are sensitive ecosystem formed as a result of merging of a river or lake with the sea. Manjeswaram river  joins the Arabian Sea at Manjeswaram estuary between Bengara and Manjeswaram. 

At the mouth of the river, one can behold the ruins of an ancient dismantled stone temple which is now a small fish landing center  The Manjeswaram estuary is rich with diverse aquatic and avian life. It is home to hordes of beautiful and rare bird species. Shore birds and waders are abundant here. Plenty of Egrets, Pond Herons and Reef Egret  Green and Red Shanks were active inside the estuary as well as on the sea shore.Manjeswaram was a thriving port town and attracted many cultures and people to its beautiful banks.  The Arabs, Jains and Konkan Brahmans and Baniyas came and settled in this little cosmopolitan town and made it truly multi-cultural.  Many Jain Bastis and temples and old buildings still survive along its old streets. Manjeswaram is an ancient town located 15kms north of Kasargode town on the banks of  Manjeswaram river. Manjeswaram is famous cashew growing place. It is a prominent pilgrim center of all castes and creeds because of the numerous mosques, temples and churches.

There are two old Jain Bastis at Bengara Manjeswar on the southern bank of the Manjeswaram River. The Mother Dolorus Church of Bela is about 11 km from Kumbla on the Kumbla -Badiadka road. The hundred year old Roman Catholic church is built in the Gothic style. The Our Lady of Sorrows Church constructed in 1890, is the oldest in the district. Manjeswaram was the seat of a flourishing community Gowda Saraswatha or Konkani Brahmins for a long time.The memorial of the late Govinda Pai, the grand patriarch of Kannada literature is also located at Manjeswaram. Manjula Kshethra Mahathmya a legend which deals with the history of this place.The district has an array of famous tourist centers some of them are Nityanandasramam, Ananthapura lake Temple, Bekal Fort, Bela Church, Malik Dinar Mosque, The Madhur Vinayaka Temple, Maipady Palace, Mallikarjuna Temple etc.

Friday, February 22, 2013


Ramapuram river is the smallest stream in Kannur district having 19 Kms length and originates from Iringal. Out of 44 rivers in Kerala 7 are in Kannur district. 
They are Ramapuram river, Kuppam river, Peruvamba river, Valapattanam river, Ancharakandy river, Thalassery river and Mahe river. The Ramapuram River  which drains in to the Kavvayi backwaters. It has its source in the hills coming in the village limits of Iringal at an altitude of 57 m above Mean Sea Level with catchment area of the basin is 52 Km2.

The river flows through the villages of Pariyaram, Cherthazhm and Madayi. Madayipara is a flat topped hillock located in the Madayi, It is overlooking Payangadi town on the northern bank of Kuppam river.The Madayipara is well known for its rich diversity of plants. The aquatic and semi-aquatic plants form extensive carpets of blue, pink, white and yellow during the monsoon season. It is typical of the Laterite foot hills of the Western Ghats. 

The area is notable for the presence of some of the rarest plants of the world such as Nymphoides krishankesara, Rotala malabarica, etc. Pariyaram Medical College is located in Kadannappali village. Cheruthazham is the location of the famous Hanumarambalam, dedicated to Sri Rama and Hanuman. Cherutazham is also the birthplace of Kalamandalam Krishnan Nair who gave a new dimension to the art of Kathakali. Sri Shiva-Vishnu temple is located in the serene atmosphere of 'Ramapuram' behind Nirmalagiri College.Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva, two among the Hindu Trinity are installed with equal importance in this temple. In Kerala there is no other temples where the Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva are given equal importance.


Thalassery or Ponnayam River originates and flows 28 km from the western cliffs of Kunnoth forest and  finally joins the Arabian Sea.It is also called Kuyali Puzha.It has one tributary and is Muriya.
Kannur District is mainly drained by Valapattanam, Ancharakandy,  Thalassery, Kuppam, Ramapuram, Mahe, Perumba and Kavai Rivers.

Thalassery is at the bank of this river and Kunduchira dam is at Moozhikkara. The geography of Thalassery is adorned with four rivers, seven hills and a long coast line.
Thalassery was a major commercial center during the British rule of India.Govt. Brennen College founded in 1851 is one of the premier educational institutions in Kerala.Herman Gundert, a German missionary who wrote the first Malayalam-English dictionary in 1872 lived in Thalassery.Muzhappilangad beach, Moppila Bay, Sree Ramaswami temple, Overbury's Folly, Odathil Palli, Fort St. Angelos,Thalassery Pier (Kadalpaalam),Thalassery Fort, Ezhimala, Payyambalam Beach Resort,Thalassery cricket Stadium,Snake Park at Parassinikkadavu,Centenary Park,Dharmadam Island,kadavathur,Sri Jagannaatha Temple,Mariamman Kovil, Malayalakalagramam, Pilakool,Pythal Mala, Pazhassi Dam are the best spot for tourism.Thalassery has a railway station and NH-17 road passes through thaluk.The nearest airport is Kozhikode International Airport.

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